Iran has a hot, dry climate characterized by long, hot, dry summers and short, cool winters. The climate is influenced by Iran's location between the subtropical aridity of the Arabian desert areas and the subtropical humidity of the eastern Mediterranean area. January is the coldest month, with temperatures from 5°C to 10°C, and August is the hottest month at 20°C to 30°C or more.


In most of the areas, summers are warm to hot with virtually continuous sunshine, but high humidity on the southern coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. Daily Temperatures can be very hot; on some days temperatures can reach easily 40°C or more, especially along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea which causes a danger of heat exhaustion.


About 70 percent of the average rainfall in the country falls between November and March; June through August are often rainless. Rainfall varies from season to season and from year to year. Precipitation is sometimes concentrated in local, but violent storms, causing erosion and local flooding, especially in the winter months. A small area along the Caspian coast has a very different climate, here rainfall is heaviest from late summer to mid winter but falls in general throughout the year.


Required clothing:
Lightweight Cotton clothes are advised in the summer, with a sweater for cooler evenings, especially in the inland areas. waterproof mediumwear is recommended for the winter, and warmer clothing for the mountainous areas of northern Iran.


Koeppen-Geiger classification:
Iran can be divided in at least four different climate zones. The Climate of the Western and southwestern areas can be classified as BWh Climate; a hot, dry desert climate with annual average temperatures above 18°C. a small zone between the Persian Gulf the turkisch Border in the mid of Iran can be classified as BSh climate, a hot, dry Climate with the annual average Teperature above 18°C. The eastern and northern areas of Iran have a Csa Climate; a mild, semi-humid climate with dry summers, mild winters and the warmest month above 22°C. Finally, the mountainous regions of northern Iran can be classified as Dsa Climate, a cold snow Climate with dry summers and wet winters with the warmest month over 22°C and the coldest month below -3°C.

Geographically, Iran is located in West Asia and borders the Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, and Gulf of Oman. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The mountains enclose several broad basins, or plateaus, on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located. Until the 20th century, when major highways and railroads were constructed through the mountains to connect the population centers, these basins tended to be relatively isolated from one another.

Typically, one major town dominated each basin, and there were complex economic relationships between the town and the hundreds of villages that surrounded it. In the higher elevations of the mountains rimming the basins, tribally organized groups practiced transhumance, moving with their herds of sheep and goats between traditionally established summer and winter pastures. There are no major river systems in the country, and historically transportation was by means of caravans that followed routes traversing gaps and passes in the mountains. The mountains also impeded easy access to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea.

With an area of 1,648,000 square kilometres (636,000 sq mi), Iran ranks eighteenth in size among the countries of the world. Iran shares its northern borders with three post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. These borders extend for more than 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi), including nearly 650 kilometres (400 mi) of water along the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. Iran's western borders are with Turkey in the north and Iraq in the south, terminating at the Arvand Rud.

The Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman littorals form the entire 1,770 kilometres (1,100 mi) southern border. To the east lie Afghanistan on the north and Pakistan on the far south. Iran's diagonal distance from Azerbaijan in the northwest to Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the southeast is approximately 2,333 kilometres (1,450 mi).

Mount Damavand in Alborz Mountains

Alborz Mountains in northern Iran is stretching from west to east, in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. This mountain range forms a natural barrier between the south part of the the Caspian Sea and the central plateau of Iran.

Elborz Chain is more than 1500 km long and its width varies from 30 to 130 km in different partss, its avarage height is about 3000m, it has several peaks over 4000m.

The highest Mountain in the Alborz Range is Damavand Volcano 5671 m which is located in central part of this great mountain range.

The artificial images from northen Iran in this topic are made by Views of the Earth by using computer rendering techniques.

Numerous high peaks are given the name Alborz and some remain till now, ie Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains and Mount Elbariz (Albariz) in the Kerman. Even there is a peak in the Hindu Kush, near Balkh, called Mount Elburz, these names come from Iran Alborz Mountain.

Alborz range is made of sedimentary series. In its northern slopes in the Caspian Sea area, forests ecoregion are lush and forested. Because of its great snowy winters there are several ski resorts, which some are among the best in the word, most important pists are: Dizin, Shemshak, Tochal, Darbandsar and Mt Damavand suitable for off-pist and wild ski mountaineering.




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